Question concerning the Law as given the children of Israel: “If the Law is added because of transgressions until the promise mediator is come, then what was transgressed?” ref> Galatians 3:19
Christian response, (a brief overview)
From the creation of the angels forward, the Law of Conscience (mentioned in Romans 2:15) i.e. the Natural Law, has been extant and operating as a restraining deterrent to angelic rebellion and to man’s sin-nature/narcissism. All of human kind has been under law since Adam and God used same to bring Judgment upon Noah’s generation stating that,“
The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 And the Lord regretted that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart.” Genesis 6
God refused to separate a people group from Noah’s generation, a people group through whom He would bring forth His Messiah; therefore, that generation, negatively influenced by the Nephilim, was eradicated by the Flood save eight (Noah and his family) and our Lord began anew with the Noahic Covenant and the purported Noahide Laws (AKA Noachian laws, the Seven Laws of Noah; Genesis 9) possibly from the Talmud that expounded upon the Natural Law of morality through the conscience. It is worth mentioning that the Noahide laws are “extra-Biblical” and not inspired Scripture. As an aside, prior to the giving of the Mosaic Law (approximately 300-years), the Code of Hammurabi was also extant and shares some commonality with the Law of Moses.
Eventually, through a Covenant with the Patriarchy of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Genesis 12:3), our God set-apart a people group after His own Name through whom He would reveal His Messiah to the World. These people were commanded, repeatedly, to be holy as God is Holy (Leviticus 11:44; 19:2; 20:7; 20:26; 21:8; Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 1:16) as they would be His representatives to a lost and dying World; therefore, God etched His Laws in Stone and eventually had them scratched upon parchment so that the Law was codified and jurisprudence extant containing moral-ceremonial/civil-dietary laws which included Messianic and eschatological renderings pointing to the coming Messiah; these Laws articulated EXACTLY what was expected of Jacob’s children and having been placed before them and explained in Leviticus and articulated once again in Deuteronomy, there was no excuse for not knowing or understanding God’s edicts and His expectations concerning Israel as the pagan tribes surrounding the Hebrew Tribes were seductive, influential, consumed with debauchery and defilement and made every attempt to proselytize Israel into the ways of Baal and Molech. So then, the Law was given Israel due to unrighteousness; that is, unrighteousness inside of and outside of Israel…