Are the Sinai Commandments and 613-Levitical Laws unique/novel and do these Laws provide righteousness (a right standing with God) through atonement for sin? Answering the Jewish Law Keeper headed to death in sin and death in Hell for rejecting Messiah Yeshua as Lord (John 8:24).
The Law of Moses and the Sinai Commandments were given specifically to the Hebrew Tribes. From Adam forward, mankind has been constrained by the Law of Conscience (Romans 2:15) as infused within human kind by our Creator for two-primary reasons,
1) The Natural-Moral Law acts as a bulwark against unrestrained narcissism that would inevitably manifest in extinction of the human species. It is the natural law-the moral law written upon our heart and controlled by the conscience and the Spirit that provides restraint concerning the sin-nature passed to all of mankind through the seed of Adam (Romans 5:12-21). This natural law has been extant since the creation of the angels. Even Satan himself is under law as are the fallen angels.
2) The natural-moral law infused within our inner-man by our Creator is essential for Judgment in Eternity to manifest with equity and due process…all of human kind will be “without excuse” (Romans 1:18-32). Where there is no Law there is no sin and where there is no sin there is no eternal culpability (Romans 4:15; 5:12-14) yet every rebellious knee will bend and every blasphemous tongue will confess Jesus is Lord to the glory of God the Father in the Day of Judgment (Philippians 2:10-11; Romans 14:11) .
The Law of Moses, the Decalog, is NOTHING new or novel as they simply place emphasis on what already exists within mankind from conception i.e. the natural-moral law; the civil-ceremonial-dietary edicts of the Levitical Law are the only addition that are unique to the moral law and these are relevant ONLY to the children of Israel and converts to Judaism as they are simply a foreshadowing of Messiah (Colossians 2:16). The Mosaic Law and the Decalog were given in response to Israel’s sin (Galatians 3:19) and as a necessary articulation of God’s expectation concerning Jacob’s children as they were set-apart for His specific purposes, both Messianic and eschatological (Leviticus 19:2; Leviticus 20:7; Leviticus 20:26; Leviticus 21:8; Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 1:16; 1 Thessalonians 4:7).
With the Advent of Messiah, born of a virgin woman and born under Law (Galatians 4:4), Jesus-Yeshua fulfilled the Commandments and the Levitical Law with perfection without sin (2 Corinthians 5:21); subsequently, the Law of Moses, the Decalog were no longer necessary as their purposes were fulfilled in Messiah (Matthew 5:17) who has instituted a New Covenant in His own blood (Matthew 26:28) replete with a New Law – New Commandments that are administered by the Holy Spirit through sanctification (Romans 7:6; 2 Corinthians 3). The Old Covenant of Law has faded away and is no longer valid (2 Corinthians 3) during this Age of Grace.
The Law Keeping child of Jacob is living in a Covenant that has been voided for a time due to Israel’s disobedience, their rejection and murder of Messiah and the impotency of that Covenant of Law that could not provide atonement but only condemned without recourse (Hebrews 10; Romans 3:20). The Covenant of Law was incomplete and its ultimate fulfillment was realized through the Advent of Messiah Jesus as God in flesh (Philippians 2:8; John 1). Jesus is the Mediator of a better Covenant established in His own blood (Hebrews 10; Matthew 26:28) and without Messiah as your God to Mediate your sin (1 Timothy 2:5-6), you will live and die in futility without hope of life in the Kingdom (John 3:16-18; 8:24; 14:6).
The moral aspects of the Sinai Commandments and the Levitical Law remain relevant as they have been incorporated by the teaching of Messiah in the Covenant of Grace and these Laws are administered by the Holy Spirit working in the individual lives of those who believe that Jesus is God who died to pay the sin-debt of all mankind (Ephesians 1:13-14; Galatians 5:16-26). Where the child of Jacob errs is thinking that the Law and obedience to same is a pathway to righteousness with God (Galatians 2:16; Romans 9:30) not understanding that God mandates perfection in obedience to the Law if one is to attain righteousness through same (Leviticus 18:5; Romans 10:5; James 2:10) – but – all of mankind is under the condemnation of sin (Romans 3:23; Isaiah 53:6) and the Law only defines sin void atonement (Romans 3:20); so then, the child of Jacob that trusts in the Law for righteousness will die in sin and die in Hell as they have rejected the only Way to life with the Father in the Kingdom i.e. faith-belief in Jesus-Yeshua as God and Mediator for sin (John 14:6; John 8:24).
It is our obedience to the Law of the Spirit in sanctification SUBSEQUENT to our confession of Jesus as Lord that affirms and substantiates our confession as true and our Covenant with God as valid. No one can earn God’s approval (Ephesians 2:8-9; Galatians 2:21); No one can earn God’s righteousness over their life…this righteousness apart from the Law must be imputed by grace through faith in Jesus as Lord (2 Corinthians 5:21; Romans 3:21).